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第一篇Maya’s notebook Isabel Allende
阅读第二篇 the stones of Venice
第三篇 moths remember what they learn as caterpillars
主要讲述植物是否具有nureo system 。
讲一个校长如何加强民众对于African American history的意识，说要在学校举办 African American history week， 然后一开始好多人反对，也没人支持，后来有个组织支持慢慢搞成了这个week，最后大概就是说通过了这个活动提高了民众对于African American history 的意识吧。
说一个画家画得特别精准， 非常真实，像是照片一样，通过一个设备叫做camera obscura画出来，一个科学家为了验证这个人画的画是否用了这个仪器，虽然有些人不同意，但最后其实是证实了这个画家用了这个仪器。
Adapted from Tansy E Hoskins, “Op-Ed | The Trouble with Second-Hand Clothes” ? 2013 by The Business of Fashion. Originally published in The Business of Fashion, November 10, 2013
In the essay titled “The Trouble with Second-hand Clothes”, Tansy Hoskins unveils the harms lurking in the clothing industry when it comes to donating used clothes. To make her point more convincing, the author has employed a number of tactics such as a clear reasoning, sufficient exemplification and a colloquial language style.
To start with, the logic of this essay is manifest enough. By depicting how people normally view the industry of donating second-hand clothes, the essay easily wins the readers’ support at the beginning. Yet, after the first glance at the industry is cast, the author goes on to explore the topic at a considerable depth. The seemingly win-win situation is, as a matter of fact, a much more complicated issue than what people have taken for granted. And closely follows that claim, Tansy points out that the donation of used clothes does much more harm than good. It has become an easy means to make profits for those insiders who have exploited “hidden professionalism” as it is extremely lucrative when the clothing is exported and sold in less developed regions like sub-Saharan Africa. The cheaply imported apparel also threatens the development of local textile industries. It even does harm to the home markets where such clothes are donated as it encourages people to continue shopping new clothes, which is highly unsustainable.
In other words, as Tansy sees it, nobody but the professional merchants involved in second-hand clothing industry is the true winner.
It is by no means easy to set people’s misconception right, and the author provides a good number of examples. Concrete numbers from reliable sources is provided when it comes to the volume of the second-hand clothing trade in Africa. 300 bales of used clothing can be sold for about 25,000 pounds and the shipping cost is around 2,000 pounds, which suggests that the profit margin is considerable as such clothes are donated by kind-hearted people in hopes of helping the needy. And as the UN database shows, “used clothing exports from OECD countries were worth $1.9 billion” in 2009. Such strong evidences are powerful enough to convince readers of her points. Quotations from other experts such as Cambridge economist Ha-Joon Chang, Dilys Williams, director of the Centre for Sustainable Fashion at the London College of Fashion have also been cited to help reset people’s notion of the industry.
Another persuasive element involved is the writer’s colloquialism, making the essay easy to follow and adding readability. The author approaches the topic with a reference to a hugely popular song called “Thrift Shop” which has been viewed by millions of people, which is a “cheeky tribute to the joys of shopping on the cheap. Word-picture such as “mountains of second-hand coats, sweaters, jackets, jeans, jumpsuits, dresses, shoes and shirts” are serving as a hint foreshadowing the later argument of money-making industry. The second paragraph continues with the easy-flow style of the language, narrating the seemingly innocent industry as a “win-win” situation as recycling second-hand clothes means “old garments don’t go to waste, while new owners get a bargain”. Yet, later, readers will realize that people’s good intentions have been made to the interest of second-hand clothing merchants as well as clothing factories, and people continue buying fashion as normal without realizing what problems their act has caused. Also, the last sentence of the essay, which is a rhetorical question in form, helps reiterate what has been proposed, inviting people to think twice before buying more clothes. By asking “But why stop and think when the charity shop or recycling bank is there to take care of the mess?”, the author suggests that people should clean their messy closets and buy less than they are doing.
To sum up, Tansy has researched deeply into this issue and made her point with the help of a clear reasoning, sufficient exemplification and a vividly colloquialism.